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Cláudio Henrique
Cláudio Henrique

Stratigraphy Of Pakistan By Ibrahim Shah Pdf Downloadl


Stratigraphy of Pakistan by Ibrahim Shah pdf download




Stratigraphy is the branch of geology that studies the arrangement and chronology of rock layers. Stratigraphy of Pakistan is a comprehensive book that covers the stratigraphic history of Pakistan from the Precambrian to the Quaternary. The book is written by S. M. Ibrahim Shah, a renowned geologist and former director general of the Geological Survey of Pakistan. The book is divided into two volumes: Volume 12, published in 1977, and Volume 22, published in 2009.


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Volume 12




Volume 12 of Stratigraphy of Pakistan provides an overview of the stratigraphy and geology of Pakistan, with emphasis on the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. The book covers the following topics:



  • The geological framework and tectonic setting of Pakistan, including the major geological provinces and their boundaries.



  • The stratigraphic classification and correlation of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks, based on lithology, fossils, and radiometric dating.



  • The description and interpretation of the major stratigraphic units, such as the Tanawal Formation, the Khyber Carbonate Complex, the Chiltan Limestone, the Ghazij Formation, the Fort Munro Group, and the Ranikot Group.



  • The paleogeography and paleoclimatology of Pakistan during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, including the effects of plate movements, sea-level changes, and volcanic activity.



  • The economic geology of Pakistan, including the occurrence and potential of mineral resources, such as coal, oil, gas, iron, copper, gold, and uranium.




Volume 12 of Stratigraphy of Pakistan is available as a hardcover book from the Director General, Geological Survey of Pakistan. It is also available as a digital copy from Google Books.


Volume 22




Volume 22 of Stratigraphy of Pakistan updates and expands the stratigraphic information presented in Volume 12, with focus on the Cenozoic era. The book covers the following topics:



  • The stratigraphic classification and correlation of the Cenozoic rocks, based on lithology, fossils, isotopes, and magnetostratigraphy.



  • The description and interpretation of the major stratigraphic units, such as the Kuldana Formation, the Murree Group, the Siwalik Group, the Dada Conglomerate, the Nari Formation, and the Kirthar Formation.



  • The biostratigraphy and paleontology of Pakistan during the Cenozoic era, including the evolution and diversity of flora and fauna, such as plants, foraminifers, mollusks, corals, echinoids, fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals.



  • The paleogeography and paleoclimatology of Pakistan during the Cenozoic era, including the effects of Himalayan orogeny, monsoon circulation, glacial cycles, and climate change.



  • The neotectonics and seismology of Pakistan, including the active faults, earthquakes, landslides, and tsunamis.




Volume 22 of Stratigraphy of Pakistan is available as a hardcover book from the Government of Pakistan Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources Geological Survey of Pakistan. It is also available as a digital copy from Open Library.


Conclusion




Stratigraphy of Pakistan by Ibrahim Shah is a valuable resource for anyone interested in learning about the geological history and diversity of Pakistan. The book provides a detailed and comprehensive account of the stratigraphic units and their significance for paleontology, paleogeography, paleoclimatology, tectonics, seismology, and economic geology. The book is written in a clear and concise manner, with illustrations, maps, diagrams, tables, charts, and references. The book is suitable for students, researchers, professionals, and enthusiasts of geology and related fields.


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