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Market Research Group

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Colton Taylor
Colton Taylor

Express Digital Darkroom 9.1 Cra



To assess the accuracy and reproducibility of a digital image analyser and the human eye, in measuring radiographic dimensions. We experimentally compared radiographic measurement using either an image analyser system or the human eye with digital caliper. The assessment of total hip arthroplasty wear from radiographs relies on both the accuracy of radiographic images and the accuracy of radiographic measurement. Radiographs were taken of a slip gauge (30+/-0.00036 mm) and slip gauge with a femoral stem. The projected dimensions of the radiographic images were calculated by trigonometry. The radiographic dimensions were then measured by blinded observers using both techniques. For a single radiograph, the human eye was accurate to 0.26 mm and reproducible to +/-0.1 mm. In comparison the digital image analyser system was accurate to 0.01 mm with a reproducibility of +/-0.08 mm. In an arthroplasty model, where the dimensions of an object were corrected for magnification by the known dimensions of a femoral head, the human eye was accurate to 0.19 mm, whereas the image analyser system was accurate to 0.04 mm. The digital image analysis system is up to 20 times more accurate than the human eye, and in an arthroplasty model the accuracy of measurement increases four-fold. We believe such image analysis may allow more accurate and reproducible measurement of wear from standard follow-up radiographs.




Express Digital Darkroom 9.1 Cra



The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and agreement of scanned film and digital periapical radiographs for the measurement of apical root shortening. Twenty-four film and digital [phosphor plate sensor (PPS)] periapical radiographs were taken using the long-cone paralleling technique for six extracted teeth before and after 1mm of apical root trimming. All teeth were mounted using a typodont and the radiographs were recorded using a film holder and polysiloxane occlusal index for each tooth to ensure standardization during the different radiographic exposures. The film radiographs were scanned and the tooth length measurements for the scanned film and digital (PPS) images were calculated using Image-J-Link 1.4 software ( ) for the two groups. The accuracy and agreement among the tooth length measurements from each group and the true tooth length measurements were calculated using intra-class correlation (ICC) tests and Bland and Altman plots. A high level of agreement was found between the true tooth length measurements and the scanned film measurements (ICC=0.979, limit of agreement 0.579 to -0.565) and the digital (PPS) radiograph measurements (ICC= 0.979, limit of agreement 0.596 to -0.763). Moreover, a high level of agreement was found between the scanned film and digital (PPS) radiographs for the measurement of tooth length ICC=0.991, limit of agreement 0.411-0.231. Film and digital (PPS) periapical radiographs are accurate methods for measuring apical root shortening with a high level of agreement. Key words:Root shortening, measurement, periapical radiographs, film, digital.


Radiographs are an important adjunct to providing oral health care for the total patient. Historically, radiographic images have been produced using film-based systems. However, in recent years, with the arrival of new technologies, many practitioners have begun to incorporate digital radiographic imaging into their practices. Since dental hygienists are primarily responsible for exposing and processing radiographs in the provision of dental hygiene care, it is imperative that they become knowledgeable on the use and application of digital imaging in patient care and record keeping. The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive overview of digital radiography in dentistry. Specific components addressed are technological features, diagnostic software, advantages and disadvantages, technique procedures, and legal implications.


Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Digital radiographic imaging systems have undergone tremendous improvements since their introduction. Advantages of digital radiographs over conventional films include lower radiation doses compared with conventional films, instantaneous images, archiving and sharing images easily, and manipulation of several radiographic properties that might help in diagnosis. A total of 6 observers including 2 endodontic residents, 3 endodontists, and 1 oral radiologist evaluated 150 molar digital periapical radiographs to determine which of the following conditions existed: normal periapical tissue, widened periodontal ligament, or presence of periapical radiolucency. The evaluators had full control over the radiograph's parameters of the Planmeca Dimaxis software program. All images were viewed on the same computer monitor with ideal vie-wing conditions. The same 6 observers evaluated the same 150 digital images 3 months later. The data were analyzed to determine how well the evaluators agreed with each other (interobserver agreement) for 2 rounds of observations and with themselves (intraobserver agreement). Fleiss kappa statistical analysis was used to measure the level of agreement among multiple raters. The overall Fleiss kappa value for interobserver agreement for the first round of interpretation was 0.34 (P


Advances in digital imaging and computer display technology have allowed development of clinical teleradiographic systems. There are limited data assessing the effectiveness of such systems when applied to urologic pathology. In an effort to appraise the effectiveness of teleradiology in identifying renal calculi, the accuracy of findings on transmitted radiographic images were compared with those made when viewing the actual plain film. Plain films (KUB) were obtained from 26 patients who presented to the radiology department to rule out urinary calculous disease. The films were digitalized by a radiograph scanner into ARCNEMA-2 file format, compressed by a NASA algorithm, and transferred via a 28.8-kbps modern over standard telephone lines to a remote section 25 miles away, where they were decompressed and viewed on a 1600 x 1200-pixel monitor. Two attending urologists and two endourologic fellows were randomized to read either the transmitted image or the original radiograph with minimal clinical history provided. Of the 26 plain radiographic films, 24 were correctly interpreted by the fellows and 25 by the attending physicians (92% and 96% accuracy, respectively) for a total accuracy of 94% with no statistical difference (p = 0.16). After compression, all but one of the digital images were transferred successfully. The attending physicians correctly interpreted 24 of the 25 digital images (96%), whereas the fellows were correct on 21 interpretations (84%), resulting in a total 90% accuracy with a significant difference between the groups (p


Digital radiographic testing is an acceptable premature nondestructive examination technique. Its performance and limitation comparing to the old technique are still not widely well known. In this paper conducted the study on the comparison of the accuracy of the defect size measurement and film quality obtained from film and digital radiograph techniques by testing in specimens and known size sample defect. Initially, one specimen was built with three types of internal defect; which are longitudinal cracking, lack of fusion, and porosity. For the known size sample defect, it was machined various geometrical size for comparing the accuracy of the measuring defect size to the real size in both film and digital images. To compare the image quality by considering at smallest detectable wire and the three defect images. In this research used Image Quality Indicator (IQI) of wire type 10/16 FE EN BS EN-462-1-1994. The radiographic films were produced by X-ray and gamma ray using Kodak AA400 size 3.5x8 inches, while the digital images were produced by Fuji image plate type ST-VI with 100 micrometers resolution. During the tests, a radiator GE model MF3 was implemented. The applied energy is varied from 120 to 220 kV and the current from 1.2 to 3.0 mA. The intensity of Iridium 192 gamma ray is in the range of 24-25 Curie. Under the mentioned conditions, the results showed that the deviation of the defect size measurement comparing to the real size obtained from the digital image radiographs is below than that of the film digitized, whereas the quality of film digitizer radiographs is higher in comparison.


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